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Демидовский временник. Книга I Демидовский временник. Книга II Купечество Руси. IX - XVII века


Демидовский временник: Исторический альманах. Книга I. — Екатеринбург: Демидовский институт, 1994. С. 391—392.

     The present historical anthology is a recurrent edition of Demidov Institute. Its aim is to acquaint the public with some researches of the Institute contributors within the programme «The history of free enterprise in Russia». Specialists from Ekaterinburg, Moscow, St. Petersburg, Chelabinsk and some other cities take part in the working up of this scientific programme.
      The first issue of Demidov Vremennik tells about such representatives of free enterprise in Russia as famous manufacturers the Demidovs. In the 18 century they set up more than 40 metallurgical plants, the most and the best part of which was located at the Urals. More than once the history of this family used to be a base for some literary and historical works. Unvariable set of historical facts had been turned white or black depending on the time of their publication. At the same time, there is the richest complex of documents reflected bicentennial history of the Demidovs family. It is well known that the archive of Nizhni Tagil works has peculiar importance as a chronicle of metallurgical plants, deeds and cares of their owners, employees and workers. Meanwhile private archive of the Demidovs, scattered in various cities and countries, has much the same value. Considerable part of this private archive is the correspondence in French which has not yet been studied enough. The correspondents of the Demidovs reflects their social, friendly and family connections most completely. An acquaintance with these documents allows to penetrate into moral and ethical ideas and feelings of that persons. Anthology begins the publication of some letters and other documents which doubtless will be interesting for specialists and common readers.
      New researches describe some representatives of the Demidovs family from various aspects: as organizers of manufactures and experts in metallurgy, as philanthropists and culture figures. This researches light up relations between the Demidovs and the authorities, and the works owners with the works stuff. Also it is interesting to bring out contacts between the Demidovs and the old-believers of the 18 century, when they played an active role in economic, cultural, social and religious life of the Urals.
      Anthology contains also some material about other works owners (the Batashevs, Petichev, the Durdins), and works specialists and employees, whose deeds, characters and destines compose a part of the history of free enterprise in Russia.
      The reader of this anthology can get to raise a curtain concealing the multi-coloured life of old Russia, and imagine more completely its spiritual and material wealth.


Демидовский временник: Исторический альманах. Книга II. — 2-е изд. — Екатеринбург: Демидовский институт, 2008. С. 852.

     The heroes of the second book of the almanac are outstanding Ural industrialists Demidovs. Their enormous documentary heritage is stored at Russian and foreign archives. Thanks to these heritage scientists discover unique findings of great scientific and cultural value. The new materials gave us a chance to describe the variety of Demidov connections with different representatives of European history and culture.
      Of special interest are the letters of the founder of one of the first scientific botanical gardens in Russia Grigory Akinfievich Demidov and his son Pavel to the great Swedish naturalist Karl Linney, and the documents of the educational travel of the three young men — Alexander, Pavel, and Peter Demidovs throughout Europe. The travel lasted from 1748 till 1761. This great collection of documents consists of letters and diaries of the sons of Grigory Akinfievich Demidov, who had sent them to study in Europe to get acquainted with European science, economy, and culture. As a result the young men studied and lived in Germany, England, Sweden. They visited Czechia, Slovakia, Austria, Switzerland, Italy, France, Belgium, the Netherlands, Denmark, and Norway. The documents of the travel give a valuable information about developing mining and techno­logy of ferrous and non-ferrous metallurgy in Europe in the middle of the XVIII century.
      When preparing the almanac for publishing the great efforts were made to find the illustrations on visual art of that epoch with the aim illustrating and supplementing the contents of the essays and documents published. The reader is given a possibility to see Europe of the XVIII century to have an idea what the European civilization was like.


Преображенский А.А., Перхавко В.Б. Купечество Руси. IX—XVII века. Екатеринбург: Демидовский институт, 1997. С. 299.

     The present book is the first publication in historiography which describes in popular style the history of Russian tradesmen during the long period — more then eight centuries. Using the written and archaeological data, the authors had reconstructed the manner of the ancient warriors-traders in one person whose emergence in Rus' during the 9th — 10th centuries was closely connected with the process of state rise and the growth of nobility's interest in the international trade. That why great Kievan princes supported the trips of early Russian merchants to Byzantium, Germany and the other foreign lands. Approximately in the midst of the 11th century the merchantry as special professional group of population had been finally distinguished in Rus'. Further it constantly reinforced by representatives of artisans, peasants and other layers. The medieval trade corporations in the Southern Rus' and in Novgorod are also mentioned in the book as well as the most privileged groups of early Muscovian merchantry of the 14th — 15th centuries — so called Gosti-Surozhane (the guests of Surozh in Crimea) who brought to Moscow silk-fabrics, spices, wine from the South and the East, Sukonniki (clothiers) who carried on cloth trade with the West. Reader can find interesting materials which showed the attitude of Russian Orthodox Church to commerce and traders. It is emphasized that the medieval merchantry was not a homogeneous fraternity being structured into several layers even called by different terms. Property status and social standing distinguished one group from another. Only the top of Russian wealthy merchants possessed the land estates, constructed stone temples. Commercial policy in the end of the 15th — 17th centuries was full of contradictions. From one side powers protected the interests of tradesmen by diplomatic and military means. But from the other side the rulers of feudal Russia repeatedly moved merchants by force to new places. After rise of Moscovian state we know new privileged groups of merchantry — such as Gosti (guests), Gostinaya sotnya (a hundred of guests), Sukonnaya sotnya (a hundred of clothiers), which had besides some advantages also different duties mainly in financial and fiscal spheres. Describing the conditions of their life and business authors used as examples the biographies of some famous merchants — V.Yermolin, Stroganov's family, K.Kalmykoff, S.Pogankin, V.Shorin etc.
      Text is provided with bibliographic notes and illustrations. Special supplement contains written sources concerning Russian merchants — «A Journey Beyond the Three Seas» by Afanasiy Nikitin and others.

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